From this vast stretch of water, a huge labyrinthine lake separated inside the land mass that was to become the Finnish peninsula and formed the tens of thousands of lakes of present-day Finland, as the earth's crust rose. Mordvinians Udmurts (Votiaks)  Maris (Cheremises)  Until 1991, President Mauno Koivisto and two of the three major parties, Center Party and the Social Democrats opposed the idea of European Union membership and preferred entering into the European Economic Area treaty. Some Kven settled in Norway and still live there but the Norwegian government has done all it can to destroy their language and culture. He was among the first men in the land. today, including not just fallen soldiers and veterans, but also orphans, evacuees from Karelia, the children who were evacuated to Sweden, women who worked during the war at home or in factories, and the veterans of the women's defense unit Lotta Svärd. There was no doubt anymore: Stalin, the vodka guzzling maniac, wished to destroy everything that was not of the Russian culture. Very little is mentioned about even the people shown in official travel pictures, which obviously aren't Slavs, while they go to great lengths in describing the glories of Slavic (equated with Russian) culture. This led to the formation of two chains of eskers out of gravel and sand that were transported by streams of melting ice. Kemijoki area was also in their control, which pointed toward the Arctic Ocean. In the south of the land there is a trading-town which they call Sciringesheal. During extremely cold periods between 9000 and 8000 B.C., the continental ice sheet halted in its retreat three times and remained stationary for centuries. Then he had to wait there for a wind directly from the north, for at that point the land turned due south - or the sea in on the land - he did not know which. It is widely believed[15][16][17] that Finno-Ugric (or Uralic) languages were first spoken in Finland and the adjacent areas during the Comb Ceramic period, around 4000 BC at the latest. This Russian Religion was used by the Czars as a tool to conquer the Finno-Ugric peoples, while destroying their old nature-warship religions - which, along with their language, carried their identities as a distinct people. Four hundred years ago the animal was still found in Kola, but now only in Siberia. A linguist related that venäjä was one of the Slavic tribes Finns came in contact with before there ever was a Russia. The Permians told him many stories both of their own land and of the lands which were round about them; but he did not know what the truth of it was, since he did not see it for himself. Ruija Kwen settlements today in Norway struggle against government attempts to destroy their language and culture. Varangians may have originally been Baltic Finns, distinguishable from Swedes by their Uralic language. Mongolians are said to be bad invaders. When the Vikings went East it was with and under the sanction of inhabitants of the Baltic shores - eg. Confusing? And from Sciringesheal, he said that he sailed in five days to the trading-town which they call Hedeby; this stands between the Wends and the Saxons and the Angles, and belongs to the Danes. Finns caught in Stalin's purges pre-WWII 1937-38 The Kensington Runestone: a Minnesota Mystery However, Finland remained an independent democracy in Northern Europe. During the years of Russian rule the degree of autonomy varied. But it is not the only culture, nor the best. The peasants were not passive; they were proud of their traditions and would band together and fight to uphold their traditional rights in the face of burdensome taxes from the king or new demands by the landowning nobility. They lived on the shores of western Finland and Estonia/Livonia and the Baltic islands, and were later joined in their guard duties by Swedes, who were called Vikings. Considering that the whole north, from the Ural Mountains to Norway, was populated by Finnish tribes, it seems odd that no great importance has been attributed to them in the Swedish or Russian literature, and when it was, it was often in the negative. The Northern Crusades He travelled there chiefly - in addition to observing the land - for the walruses, because they have very fine bone in their teeth (they brought some of those teeth to the king), and their hides are very good for ship's ropes. Confusing? These mysterious people ruled the North for millennia. Finnish tribes followed the ice north over thousands of years from their inter-glacial central European home, which is now established in the latest Mitochondrial DNA information. In those mountains live Lapps. This sounds like the Finns arrived much like the Slavs did, to claim the north for themselves, which is not accurate. Kuussaari claims that the word Varangian comes from the Finnish word "vara/vartio" which in Finnish means "guard" and "Vaara" means "danger" or "hill." However, as work continues, new finds shed a different light on prehistory of Finland. When they met the Russians for the first time, it was natural that the Russians would refer to them as Varangians, and they soon came to realize that there were different kinds of Varangians. "Ancestors of present-day Finns were hunters, trappers, agriculturists who came to Finland by way of the Baltic regions during the first centuries AD, spreading slowly from south and west to east and north. It is not fanatical nationalism, as some suggest, to correct history. Finnish Map of Eastern Slavic Migration North. The Varangians: Who were they? Then alongside that land to the south, on the other side of the mountains, is the land of the Swedes, extending northwards; and alongside that land to the north, the land of the Finns. Trade relations appear to have been maintained mostly with peoples in the east and the southeast; flint was brought over from present day Russia, amber from East Prussia. And the Slavic (as nice people as many of them might be) historians cannot, unfortunately, be trusted with even their own history let alone that of another ethnic group, due to their documented omission and falsification of history to glorify themselves at the expense of other ethnic groups, whose existence they want to see only in museums. The Finnish Bronze Age started in approximately 1,500 BC and the Iron Age started in 500 BC and lasted until 1,300 AD. Alfred pursued him there and surrounded the Viking camp. According to one Finnish source, they are identified as "Scandinavians," but the original Varangians were probably actually Fenno-Scandians. When the Vikings eventually joined the Varangians (now they are Vikings, Varangians and Rus too) in their guard duties, about the time the slavs were setting up shop in the north, the Russians referred to them too as Varangians, as well as possibly others such as Angles who may have joined them. While the Swedish version is taught in schools today, there are some who do not accept it and continue to dig deeper into early literature and their tell-tale revelations of the truth. Of course the Slavs were nowhere in sight when the Finns were relating and singing their oral tradition for thousands of years. (2014). Each one pays according to his rank. They had developed elaborate early warning systems based on relay shoreline fires so that the minute a Viking or any unfriendly ship appeared, the curl of smoke could be seen in fires off into the distant Baltic. The dividing line was struck so that the Halogalanders only taxed their immediate lands around their side of the Mountains, so that the whole area beyond remained in Kainuu control. As a result, extensive groves of hazel, elm, oak, and linden trees grew, all of which are encountered today only at scattered intervals in southern Finland. Some Swedish sources say that "Rus" comes from the word "Roslagen" which is a town in Sweden, and some say it came from Swede called Ruser. Clearly, a lot of work remains to be done to reveal the true nature of ancient Finnish civilization in the North, of which the Kalevala and the Nordic Sagas suggest. The Vikings too were faithful, but they never were referred to by that term. They became quite wealthy through this trade and by taxing the Lapps. The result was a (small) non-Socialist majority and a purely non-Socialist Senate. Finland. Some sagas were little more than novels, while others wrote to memory true stories of old events. He meant the Northern people who were known in the Eastern world as "Rus." When he visited the king he still had six hundred tame animals unbought. Many of these immigrants were actually Central European Finno-Ugrians who spoke a related language, but whose language was eventually buried under several layers of Germanic languages. It is simply the search for the truth. As the ice load grew thinner and vanished, the earth's crust began to rise--a process that has continued to this day, most markedly along the Gulf of Bothnia. A symbiotic relationship formed between the Finns and Swedes, who helped to fend off the Slavs. Some sagas were little more than novels, while others wrote to memory true stories of old events. Finns had their own chiefs, but most probably no central authority. As the Vikings' power increased in the North, they took over the taxation of the Lapps and Finns alike along the Atlantic coast and in time their taxation influence would stretch all the way to the Kola Peninsula. You see, the Halogaland farmboys had also begun to tax the Lapps. These two separate ridges, known as the Salpausselkä ranges, run east and west across the entire breadth of Around the year 3 000 B.C., a new Stone Age culture, known as the Comb-Ceramic culture, spread throughout Finland. This leads to ethnic conflicts. For example, some of the stone weapons of the era are made of types of stone that do not occur in Finland. 23,1 59,7 10,0 1,0  0,5 Ethnic cleansing: report from Russia: Finns and Karelians shot in 1937-38 by Stalin Russian Karelians were arrested and killed. And there are very large freshwater lakes throughout the mountains; and the Finns carry their boats overland to the lakes, and make war on the Norwegians from there; they have very small and very light boats. True, the Finns did not have a written history to remind them how they lived in the past until the Swedes arrived. And so these brave, adventurous, heroic, Kalevala Finnish trader/soldiers spread their power throughout the North in the 800's from Sweden's Norrland to Norway's Halogaland, according to Ottar. 23,1 59,7 10,0 1,0  0,5 But to the starboard there was waste land all the way, except for fishers and fowlers and hunters - and they were all Lapps; and there was always open sea on his port. Since their history was a rich oral tradition, it could not be destroyed in a fire, or robbed, and it is through this evidence that early Finns are able to contradict Swedish and Russian written accounts about the role and extent of Finnish civilization in the north prior to Swedish rule. The Kainuu King Faravid went to war against the Karelians with Norwegian aid. When the Catholics too brought their religion to Finland via Sweden, did they also change Finnish history which was based on nature worship/shamanism and Kalevala? Instead the result of the Treaty of Åbo was that the Russian border was moved further to the west. Mordvinians Some of the problems arrise from the fact that at one time Russia occupied Finland as a colonial power when the army was away fighting Sweden's silly wars. Finnish History has slowly been changed by the powers recording events to the Southeast and West of Finland/Karelia. Then the land turned due east - or the sea in on the land - he did not know which; he knew only that there he waited for a wind from the west and a little from the north, and then sailed east, close to the land, for as far as he could sail in four days. He meant the Northern people who were known in the Eastern world as "Rus." In the economic policy, the EU membership brought with it many large changes. Borders, however, are not drawn in accordance with ethnic distribution, but are based solely on economic and political expediency. When he visited the king he still had six hundred tame animals unbought. Both the ascending Russian Empire and pre-revolutionary France aspired to have Sweden as a client state. And the Slavic (as nice people as many of them might be) historians cannot, unfortunately, be trusted with even their own history let alone that of another ethnic group, due to their documented omission and falsification of history to glorify themselves at the expense of other ethnic groups, whose existence they want to see only in museums. Still today the Russians lament the Mongolian raids, and the Finns lament the Russian raids. Both terrestrial and aquatic game were abundant. During extremely cold periods between 9000 and 8000 B.C., the continental ice sheet halted in its retreat three times and remained stationary for centuries. And so these brave, adventurous, heroic, Kalevala Finnish trader/soldiers spread their power throughout the North in the 800's from Sweden's Norrland to Norway's Halogaland, according to Ottar. World War I was still underway and the defeat of the Red Guards was achieved with support from Imperial Germany, while Sweden remained neutral and Russia withdrew its forces. The Permians told him many stories both of their own land and of the lands which were round about them; but he did not know what the truth of it was, since he did not see it for himself. During extremely cold periods between 9000 and 8000 B.C., the continental ice sheet halted in its retreat three times and remained stationary for centuries. Considering that the whole north, from the Ural Mountains to Norway, was populated by Finnish tribes, it seems odd that no great importance has been attributed to them in the Swedish or Russian literature, and when it was, it was often in the negative. It worked very effectively and they became known as Varangians. In thousands Komis (Zyrians) Karelians Komi-Permians Maris (Cheremises) Mordvinians (Erzas and Mokshas) Udmurts (Votiaks) Vepsians Mansis (Voguls) Saamis (Lapps) Khantis (Ostiaks) These rivers were at the Eastern end of the Atlantic trading area. The Kensington Runestone: a Minnesota Mystery Sable skins were highly prized by civilizations all over the continent, in fact all the way to Arabia and beyond. The Finns' heritage, the knowledge of their vast ancient kingdom - was it taken away by the new Swedish rulers and the Slavs from the south? Zetterberg, Seppo, ja Tiita, Allan , Suomi kautta aikojen, Otava 1992 This whale is much smaller than other whales: it is no longer than seven ells long. The Baltic Finns also suffered huge losses especially in 1702-4, and St. Petersburg was founded in the middle of the Ingerian-Finn's land in 1703. Chronology of Slavic conquest Although the people just South of the Kainuu people were their cousins, (Satakunta) there is no evidence that they joined the Kainuu people against the Karelians. In 880, Rurik's successor, Oleg, conquered the Slavic-ruled Kiev and made the city his capital two years later. Usually a Swedish derivation of most words is the accepted one. Russians murdered the Mongolian diplomats sent to negotiate peace, but we never hear about that. Russian accounts suggest that eventually there were more than one kind of Varangian. The Halogalanders were given the taxation of the Laplanders in 860. 1939 (Kuussaari, 1935) The Northern Crusades Let's look at some explanations from different perspectives. Finnish History has slowly been changed by the powers recording events to the Southeast and West of Finland/Karelia. 8300 BC). They were soldier traders who travelled all the way to the Volga to trade with the Bolgarians, and beyond. He said that he lived by the western sea in the north part of the land. It worked very effectively and they became known as Varangians. During the final stages of the Ice Age, the body of water that eventually evolved into the Baltic Sea was a lake. Ruija Kwen settlements today in Norway struggle against government attempts to destroy their language and culture. They were merchant warriors that formed an alliance to protect against Viking raids from the west so that some warning system would be in place even during their trips. It looks like they made the right decision. Archaeologists consider a culture new when its relics are found to have undergone a decisive change in character, but they cannot definitely determine whether the reason for the change was an entirely new population, an alien conquest, or simply a peaceful cultural interchange. He was among the first men in the land. Even in the autonomous republics such trends inevitably lead to Russification of the Finno-Ugric Nation. Waves of other Finnish immigrants arrived in the first Millennium, but they did not fill a vacuum. Considering that the whole north, from the Ural Mountains to Norway, was populated by Finnish tribes, it seems odd that no great importance has been attributed to them in the Swedish or Russian literature, and when it was, it was often in the negative. Vanrangian guards, not Varangian sea-wolves. The history written by their hand must always be cross-checked with independent sources. During the last Ice Age they lived as far south as Holland and Britain in the West and the north shore of the Black Sea in the East. Trade relations appear to have been maintained mostly with peoples in the east and the southeast; flint was brought over from present day Russia, amber from East Prussia. [citation needed] Before the parliamentary decision to join the EU, a consultative referendum was held on April 16, 1994 in which 56.9% of the votes were in favour of joining. It is simply the search for the truth. (Encyclopedia of the Nations, 2006). Evolution of the Viking Longship 1 The net was made of nettle fibers. (Encyclopedia of the Nations, 2006). Around the year 3 000 B.C., a new Stone Age culture, known as the Comb-Ceramic culture, spread throughout Finland. It was the Finns who had the reputation for being good guardsmen, while the Vikings had the reputation for being sea wanderers, traders and raiders. But to the starboard there was waste land all the way, except for fishers and fowlers and hunters - and they were all Lapps; and there was always open sea on his port. Where is Kvenland? Sometimes the Finns make war on the Norwegians across the mountains; sometimes the Norwegians on them. Then this country continues until he comes to Sciringesheal, and Norway all the way on the port side. Through the study of such phenomena, geologists have been able to deduce the origins of Finland. Some researchers assume that, during the middle phase of the Comb-Ceramic culture, new racial types from the plains of eastern Europe and from the Baltic regions merged with the indigenous population. Then they turned up into that river because they dare not sail beyond the river for fear of hostility, because on the other side of the river the land was all inhabited. While the Finns made the transition from Catholicism to Protestantism under Swedish rule, their cousins, the Finno-Ugric people in Russia were slowly being Russified with the help of the Russian Orthodox Church. At this time, several ringed seal subspecies became land-locked in the inland waters. (Kuussaari, 1935) About 5 000 B.C., the Finnish climate became damp and warm. Then the land turned due east - or the sea in on the land - he did not know which; he knew only that there he waited for a wind from the west and a little from the north, and then sailed east, close to the land, for as far as he could sail in four days. [36] Landowners had to pay higher wages to keep their peasants. So we should find out what Mongolian history says about their raids. Then he was as far north as the whale-hunters ever travel. 7,7 They knew of several types of Varangians, and they generalized the term to include Swedes as the Finns became a part of the Swedish realm. They lived on the shores of western Finland and Estonia/Livonia and the Baltic islands, and were later joined in their guard duties by Swedes, who were called Vikings. Segregation is common in Sweden whereby children with Finnish names are sent to portable classrooms (for special learning) while the Swedes enjoy the main school fascilities. This may be the reason Vikings were not called Varangians in Britain. A linguist related that venäjä was one of the Slavic tribes Finns came in contact with before there ever was a Russia. There a great river extended up into the land. Each one pays according to his rank. Vikings are often equated with Varangians, who came to consist of both Finns and Swedes as the latter turned Eastward and joined the Finns in the beginning of the second millennium, corresponding with the Swedish crusades to Finland. Swedish control over Finnish territory was established gradually beginning in the 12th century in a number of religious crusades." Much of ancient history unfortunately is merely ancient propaganda. Nor is it unfounded revisionism. It was previously thought that these seafaring people had adopted the Viking ship as their means of transportation and built excellent large ships with at least a hundred oarsmen. They established trading posts on the Volga and assisted the eastern Finns, and even the Slavs in the business of trade. Fires were lit on hills which were part of their early warning system. In fact the Swedes today say the Sagas tell the truth about Viking Kings, but what they say about Finnish Kings is folklore. Finland is full of archeological evidence that Baltic Finns/Karelians have lived there for thousands of years, fishing and hunting as usual. We must be careful in judging history from just one perspective. After the Finnish War in 1809, the vast majority of the Finnish-speaking areas of Sweden were ceded to the Russian Empire (excluding the areas of modern-day Northern Sweden where Meänkieli dialects of Finnish are spoken), making this area the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. Finland is actually rising at 8.5 mm/year, an amazing speed, that can easily stay ahead of any rise in ocean levels. Kvenland people lived on the North half of the Gulf of Bothnia, on the Western, Northern and Eastern shores. Under such propitious circumstances, Stone Age man moved his abode northward and gradually spread over the whole peninsula. Some Swedish sources say that "Rus" comes from the word "Roslagen" which is a town in Sweden, and some say it came from Swede called Ruser. 248,0 Most of the children were sent back by 1948, but 15–20% remained abroad. It is simply the search for the truth. 69,0 The Comb-Ceramic people inherited their stone implements from an older, pre-Ceramic culture, which, at least, signifies that an unbroken contact with the earlier inhabitants of the country had existed. A minority, mostly cottagers, were estateless, and had no political representation. Since their history was a rich oral tradition, it could not be destroyed in a fire, or robbed, and it is through this evidence that early Finns are able to contradict Swedish and Russian written accounts about the role and extent of Finnish civilization in the north prior to Swedish rule. Of course the Slavs were nowhere in sight when the Finns were relating and singing their oral tradition for thousands of years. All that they can either graze or plough lies by the sea; and even that is very rocky in some places; and to the east, and alongside the cultivated land, lie wild mountains. Swedish Rule in Finland The Finnish National Epic "Kalevala," which was composed of Karelian songs and stories, describes these heroic people of the North. The overall situation caused decline in the economy and morale in Old Finland, worsened since 1797 when the area was forced to send men to the Imperial Army. varangian \Va*ran"gi*an\, n. One of the Northmen who founded a dynasty in Russia in the 9th century; also, one of the Northmen composing, at a later date, the imperial bodyguard at Constantinople. As you well know, history is written by the winning side. Reference Books and Videos © 1998 - 2014 Osmo Joronen The Nordic, and especially Icelandic Sagas and other independent sources of the time seem to indicate just that. The Saami, whose language and culture are now protected, were gradually displaced from their traditional areas including Lake Laatokka (Ladoga), until today they live mainly in Northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. The term in some English dictionaries is said to be from the old Norse word "Väring." Many of these immigrants were actually Central European Finno-Ugrians who spoke a related language, but whose language was eventually buried under several layers of Germanic languages. The Finnish Empire or Empire of Finland was a bloc of alliances under the total control of the Finnish Cooperation Organization. It is not fanatical nationalism, as some suggest, to correct history. In the absence of hard facts to prove these assertions, one has to consider all possibilities, keeping in mind that the Finnish position in the North is always downplayed, while Russian and Swedish roles are magnified by royal historians. The Slavs drove a wedge northward using every method at their disposal, including superior weapons from central Europe, isolating groups from each other and complicating what the vast distances already were doing: dividing the tribes. So based on old taxation rights this area could be called Finland by today's geographers. When the Vikings went East it was with and under the sanction of inhabitants of the Baltic shores - eg. Komi-Permian..................23%..............3% About twelve thousand years ago, Finland (the area inhabited by Finns, Karelians and Lapps, between Norway and Lake Onega) was almost totally buried under a continental ice sheet, just as Greenland is today. 1177,5 Very little is mentioned about even the people shown in official travel pictures, which obviously aren't Slavs, while they go to great lengths in describing the glories of Slavic (equated with Russian) culture. During extremely cold periods between 9000 and 8000 B.C., the continental ice sheet halted in its retreat three times and remained stationary for centuries. But their income is chiefly in the tribute that the Lapps pay them. Their strength was greatly reduced by the Swedish kings' ambitions far away from Finland, especially in Poland and the disastrous march on Moscow that followed. Under such propitious circumstances, Stone Age man moved his abode northward and gradually spread over the whole peninsula. The GDP growth rate has since been one of the highest of OECD countries and Finland has topped many indicators of national performance. Sweden's misuse of Finnish troops was responsible for many Russian gains into traditional Finnish lands such as St. Petersburg area. So were Mongolians any worse than the Russians, or the Romans? He was among the first men in the land. Most of the Finno-Ugric people joined along with everyone else, but the Moscow army ended the revolt and Stenka Razin was killed. Now the Norwegian Halogalanders, with whom the Kainuu (Kven or Kwen) people had made peace, had to come help fight off the Karelians in about the year 875. 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