The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition The resulting tensions brought about the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), in which Athens was defeated by its rival Sparta. Definition of athens in the Definitions.net dictionary. Then, next to the book, put the pages from the Guided Reading Workbook that "The impact of climate change and urban heat islands on the occurrence of extreme events in cities. Four mountain ranges extend into city boundaries and thousands of kilometres of trails criss-cross the city and neighbouring areas, providing exercise and wilderness access on foot and bike. Later in the mid and late 19th century, Theophil Freiherr von Hansen and Ernst Ziller took part in the construction of many neoclassical buildings such as the Athens Academy and the Zappeion Hall. For other uses, see, "Agrae" redirects here. This set a mod… Definition of athens in the Definitions.net dictionary. Athens definition, a city in and the capital of Greece, in the southeastern part. Pericles was elected leader for 15 years in a row.  This issue is not unique to Athens; for instance, Los Angeles and Mexico City also suffer from similar atmospheric inversion problems.. You can use this Guided Reading Workbook in two ways. Other forms of song popular today in Greece are elafrolaika, entechno, dimotika, and skyladika. “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time. Athens welcomed more than 5 million tourists in 2018 and 1,4 million of them were "city-breakers" (in 2013 the city-breakers were only 220.000). Pericles led Athens with the help of an assembly made up of thousands of male citizens. The National Garden of Athens was completed in 1840 and is a green refuge of 15.5 hectares in the centre of the Greek capital. Other notable clubs within Athens are Athinaikos, Panionios, Atromitos, Apollon, Panellinios, Egaleo F.C., Ethnikos Piraeus, Maroussi BCE and Peristeri B.C.. Athenian clubs have also had domestic and international success in other sports. Primary tabs.  Damage to the park has led to worries over a stalling in the improvement of air quality in the city. Among these challengers is Olga Palagia, professor of archaeology at the University of Athens. The city also supports music venues, including the Athens Concert Hall (Megaro Moussikis), which attracts world class artists. The earliest coinage of Athens, c. 545–525/15 BC, Coat of Arms of the Duchy of Athens during the rule of the de la Roche family (13th century). The Entry of King Otto in Athens, Peter von Hess, 1839.  A 2019 crime index from Numbeo places Athens at 130th position, rating safer than Tampa, Florida or Dublin, Ireland. The city has also been host to sports events of international importance.  Eight different etymologies, now commonly rejected, were proposed during the 17th century. The airport is served by the Metro, the suburban rail, buses to Piraeus port, Athens' City Centre, Liosion and Kifisos Intercity bus stations and Elliniko metro's line 2 southern terminal, and also taxis. The decades that followed became known as the Golden Age of Athenian democracy, during which time Athens became the leading city of Ancient Greece, with its cultural achievements laying the foundations for Western civilization. 2,530,000. a city in N Georgia. In 2014, the airport handled 15,196,369 passengers, an increase of 21.2% over the previous year of 2013. Originally intended as an association of Greek city-states to continue the fight against the Persians, the league soon turned into a vehicle for Athens's own imperial ambitions. The Athens Metropolitan Area (Greek: Μητροπολιτική Περιοχή της Αθήνας), also commonly known in English as Greater Athens, spans 2,928.717 km2 (1,131 sq mi) within the Attica region and includes a total of 58 municipalities, which are organized in seven regional units (those outlined above, along with East Attica and West Attica), having reached a population of 3,737,550 based on the preliminary results of the 2011 census. Thanks to his efforts, Athens was awarded the first modern Olympic Games.  Rafina and Lavrio act as alternative ports of Athens, connects the city with numerous Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, Evia and Cesme in Turkey, while also serving the cruise ships that arrive. Today it is often simply called η πρωτεύουσα ī protévousa 'the capital'.  The four regional units that make up what is referred to as Greater Athens have a combined population of 2,640,701. Stathopoulou M., Cartalis C., Andritsos A. Athens ist eine Stadt im US-Bundesstaat Georgia.Die Stadt liegt am Oconee River auf dem Piedmont-Plateau im Nordosten des Staates.. 1991 fusionierte die Stadt Athens mit dem Clarke County und bildete ein consolidated city-county, das seitdem gemeinsam verwaltet wird.Die Stadt ist der Mittelpunkt der Metropolregion Athens–Clarke County. Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. "Evolution of the air temperature in Athens and evidence of climatic change: A review". "On the characteristics of the summer urban heat island in Athens, Greece". Variant names included Setines, Satine, and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of prepositional phrases. All the activities of UNIWA are carried out in the modern infrastructure of the three University Campuses within the metropolitan region of Athens (Egaleo Park, Ancient Olive Groove and Athens), which offer modern teaching and research spaces, entertainment and support facilities for all students. After an unsuccessful bid in 1990, the 1997 bid was radically improved, including an appeal to Greece's Olympic history. The length of Athens's commuter rail network extends to 120 km (75 mi), and is expected to stretch to 281 km (175 mi) by 2010. A second Olympic complex, next to the sea at the beach of Palaio Faliro, also features modern stadia, shops and an elevated esplanade. In 2004 Athens hosted the 2004 Summer Olympics. The old one Phaliro was in the site of modern Palaio Faliro and gradually declined after the construction of the new prototype port but remained as a minor port and important settlement with historic significance in late Classical times. Another important Athenian sport club is the Athens Tennis Club founded in 1895 with important offer for the Greek tennis.. 19,743. a town in N Alabama. Occupying a small but fertile strip of land, the city of Athens would soon prosper into one of the greatest cities of the Ancient World. The Athens area encompasses a variety of terrain, notably hills and mountains rising around the city, and the capital is the only major city in Europe to be bisected by a mountain range. Attica, Modern Greek Attikí, ancient district of east-central Greece; Athens was its chief city. Ancient Athens was one of the most important civilizations in history. It is the largest container port in East Mediterranean Sea Basin. It is also a major national hub for Intercity (Ktel) and international buses as well as for domestic and international rail transport. At the time, it was reduced to a town of about 4,000 people in a loose swarm of houses along the foot of the Acropolis. Owing to the rain shadow of the Pindus Mountains, annual precipitation of Athens is lower than most other parts of Greece, especially western Greece. The municipality (City) of Athens is also the capital of the Attica region.  The crisis eased by mid-January when authorities began taking the garbage to a temporary landfill.  Modern scholars now generally agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names.. Athens is home to three European multi-sport clubs: Olympiacos, Panathinaikos, AEK Athens. However, Athens, like many other Bronze Age settlements, went into economic decline for around 150 years afterwards.  The landmark Dionysiou Areopagitou Street has been pedestrianised, forming a scenic route. Meaning of athens. Other universities that lie within Athens are the Athens University of Economics and Business, the Panteion University, the Agricultural University of Athens and the University of Piraeus. Santamouris M., Papanikolaou I., Livada I., Koronakis C., Georgakis C, Assimakopoulos D.N. Is It Time to Take a Chance on Random Representatives? Pericles was a noted ruler of Athens. 12,080. a town in E Texas. The 1906 Summer Olympics, or the 1906 Intercalated games, were held in Athens. As of the 2011 census, the population for each of the seven municipal districts of Athens is as follows:. Additional History Flashcards . © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Description. View (active tab) Flashcards; Learn; Scatter; Printer Friendly. Later, under Rome, Athens was given the status of a free city because of its widely admired schools. Katsoulis B.D., Theoharatos G.A. He believed in the saying “Nothing to excess," meaning that a person should not overdo anything. Athens was voted as the third best European city to visit in 2015 by European Best Destination. In the ensuing Greco-Persian Wars Athens, together with Sparta, led the coalition of Greek states that would eventually repel the Persians, defeating them decisively at Marathon in 490 BC, and crucially at Salamis in 480 BC.  In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena (Attic Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnâ, Ionic Ἀθήνη, Athḗnē, and Doric Ἀθάνα, Athā́nā) or Athena took her name from the city. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years later it hosted the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of the few cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. Over the past decade, the city's infrastructure and social amenities have improved, in part because of its successful bid to stage the 2004 Olympic Games. In late June 2007, the Attica region experienced a number of brush fires, including a blaze that burned a significant portion of a large forested national park in Mount Parnitha, considered critical to maintaining a better air quality in Athens all year round. And so one recent evening I pulled into Athens, Ga., the 10th stop on my 15-city, self-engineered, all-drive, no-fly book tour. Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. understand your history textbook, Modern World History: Patterns of Interaction.  The Athens Metro runs three metro lines, namely the line 1 (Green Line), line 2 (Red Line) and line 3 (Blue Line) lines, of which the first was constructed Athens is one of the major economic centres in south-eastern Europe and is considered as a regional economic power in Europe generally. Notable composers of operettas or nocturnes were Kostas Giannidis, Dionysios Lavrangas, Nikos Hatziapostolou, while Theophrastos Sakellaridis' The Godson remains probably the most popular operetta.  The expansion to Piraeus will include 12 new stations, increase the overall length of tram route by 5.4 km (3 mi), and increase the overall transportation network. The completed extension will be ready in 2022, connecting the biggest port of Greece, Piraeus Port, with the biggest airport of Greece the Athens International Airport. Sustainable Cities and Society, 1, pp. According to data from 2014, Athens as a metropolitan economic area produced 130 billion US-dollars as GDP in PPP, which consists nearly a half of the production for the whole country. Athens' other major stadium, located in the Piraeus area, is the Karaiskakis Stadium, a sports and entertainment complex, host of the 1971 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final. During the 1920s a number of Greek refugees, expelled from Asia Minor after the Greco-Turkish War, swelled Athens's population; nevertheless it was most particularly following World War II, and from the 1950s and 1960s, that the population of the city exploded, and Athens experienced a gradual expansion.  The biggest stadium in the country, it hosted two finals of the UEFA Champions League, in 1994 and 2007.  Cecrops accepted this gift and declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. The dominant feature of Athens' climate is alternation between prolonged hot and dry summers and mild winters with moderate rainfall.  In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. What Is The Difference Between “It’s” And “Its”? It runs from Piraeus station to Kifissia station and covers a distance of 25.6-kilometre (15.9 mi). Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. The photos of Athens before the madness of reconstruction, which changed the character of the city, evoke nostalgia. Definition of Democracy. Nevertheless, air pollution still remains an issue for Athens, particularly during the hottest summer days. In 1458 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and entered a long period of decline. July and August are the driest months when thunderstorms occur sparsely. The hills of Athens also provide green space. The Stadiou Street in Central Athens in 1908.  Further extension is under construction towards the major commercial port of Piraeus. Lycabettus is one of the tallest hills of the city proper and provides a view of the entire Attica Basin. The games welcomed over 10,000 athletes from all 202 countries. Kifissos provides connections towards Peloponnese, North Greece, West Greece and some Ionian Islands, whereas Liosion is used for most of Central Greece. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.  On the other hand, specific meteorological stations, such as the National Garden station and Thiseio meteorological station, are less affected or do not experience the urban heat island. Troy: Definition. Pericles led Athens with the help of an assembly made up of thousands of male citizens.  In addition to a large number of multiplexes, Athens plays host to open air garden cinemas. "Passive Cooling and Urban Layout". As an example, Ioannina receives around 1,300 mm (51 in) per year, and Agrinio around 800 mm (31 in) per year.  As Eurostat the FUA of Athens had in 2013 3,828,434 inhabitants, being apparently decreasing compared with the pre-economic crisis date of 2009 (4,164,175). 10th Grade. The contest took place between the god of the sea Poseidon and … They together with the regional unit of Piraeus (Greater Piraeus) make up the dense Athens Urban Area which reaches a total population of 3,090,508 inhabitants (in 2011). During the time of the Ancient Greeks it was the center of power, art, science, and philosophy in the world.  It then ascends to ground level and continues to Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, using the Suburban Railway infrastructure, extending its total length to 39 km (24 mi). 10,197. any city that is compared to Athens, esp. Areas to Avoid and Other Warnings", "Worldwide Quality of Living ranking 2019", "Founda D. (2011). In 1923, after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, many ethnic Greeks from Asia Minor fled to Athens as a result of the Greco-Turkish War. The most successful songs during the period 1870–1930 were the so-called Athenian serenades (Αθηναϊκές καντάδες), based on the Heptanesean kantádhes (καντάδες 'serenades'; sing. What does athens mean? Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? AP WORLD HISTORY SPARTA VS. ATHENS The wars fought by Sparta and Athens in the fifth century BC pitted one city-state with ancient Greece’s greatest army against one boasting her most powerful fleet. In 500 BC the area probably contained 200,000 people. The airport accommodates 65 landings and take-offs per hour, with its 24-passenger boarding bridges, 144 check-in counters and broader 150,000 m2 (1,614,587 sq ft) main terminal; and a commercial area of 7,000 m2 (75,347 sq ft) which includes cafés, duty-free shops, and a small museum. All over the city can be found several statues or busts. At one point in history, the city of Athens was the proud owner of the Temple of Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. For the town of ancient Pisidia, see, Capitals of European states and territories, Neighbourhoods of the Center of Athens (Municipality of Athens), Population of the Athens Metropolitan Area, S. Immerwahr, The Athenian Agora XIII: the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, Princeton 1971. , Athens is the major transportation hub of Greece. Athens has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice, in 1896 and 2004. Fencing before the king of Greece at the 1896 Summer Olympics. Learn more about the history and significance of Athens in this article. Democracy is a system of government where citizens are allowed to participate in the proposal and creation of laws. In football, Olympiacos have dominated the domestic competitions, Panathinaikos made it to the 1971 European Cup Final, while AEK Athens is the other member of the big three. Apart from the neoclassicals by Leonidas Drosis at the Academy of Athens (Plato, Socrates, Apollo, Athena), other notable include the statue of Theseus by Georgios Fytalis at Thiseion, of philhellenes like Lord Byron, George Canning and William Gladstone, the equestrian statue of Theodoros Kolokotronis by Lazaros Sochos in front of the Old Parliament, statues of Ioannis Kapodistrias, Rigas Feraios and Adamantios Korais at the University, of Evangelos Zappas and Konstantinos Zappas at Zappeion, of Ioannis Varvakis at the National Garden, the "woodbreaker" by Dimitrios Filippotis, the equestrian statue of Alexandros Papagos at Papagou district and various busts of fighters of Greek independence at the Pedion tou Areos. 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A member of the aristocracy named Pericles (PAIR»uh»kleez) led Athens during much of this time. The city has the largest airport in Greece and the largest port in Greece, which is also the largest port in Mediterranean in containers transport and the largest passenger port in Europe. Neoclassicism, the international style of this epoch, was the architectural style through which Bavarian, French and Greek architects such as Hansen, Klenze, Boulanger or Kaftantzoglou designed the first important public buildings of the new capital. (2005). Amphipolis Tomb Yields Amazing Finds But Mysteries Linger.  According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area (FUA) of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union (the 6th most populous capital city of the EU), with a population of 3.8 million people. Because, then, the contributions of Athens to our own life are so important, because they touch (as a Greek would say) upon almost every side of "the true, the beautiful, and the good," it is obvious that the outward conditions under which this Athenian genius developed deserve our respectful attention. "On the impact of Urban Climate to the Energy Consumption of Buildings". Kassomenos P.A. During the time of the Ancient Greeks it was the center of power, art, science, and philosophy in the world. There are also several other private colleges, as they called formally in Greece, as the establishment of private universities is prohibited by the constitution. He roamed the streets of Athens asking people provocative questions that exposed uncomfortable contradictions in their beliefs. Located in the heart of the Bluegrass the city and its citizens have been involved in world affairs politically, economically, and culturally. By the late 1970s, the pollution of Athens had become so destructive that according to the then Greek Minister of Culture, Constantine Trypanis, "...the carved details on the five the caryatids of the Erechtheum had seriously degenerated, while the face of the horseman on the Parthenon's west side was all but obliterated. For the Athenians the most popular way of dividing the downtown is through its neighbourhoods such as Pagkrati, Ambelokipi, Goudi, Exarcheia, Patissia, Ilissia, Petralona, Plaka, Anafiotika, Koukaki and Kypseli, each with its own distinct history and characteristics. In the northern suburb of Maroussi, the upgraded main Olympic Complex (known by its Greek acronym OAKA) dominates the skyline. , The major waste management efforts undertaken in the last decade (particularly the plant built on the small island of Psytalia) have greatly improved water quality in the Saronic Gulf, and the coastal waters of Athens are now accessible again to swimmers. Many of them are accredited by a foreign state or university such as the American College of Greece and the Athens Campus of the University of Indianapolis.. Multinational companies such as Ericsson, Sony, Siemens, Motorola, Samsung, Microsoft, Novartis, Mondelez, Coca-Cola, etc. In January 2007, Athens faced a waste management problem when its landfill near Ano Liosia, an Athenian suburb, reached capacity. Athens is named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and war, and daughter of Zeus. These clubs also have basketball teams; Panathinaikos and Olympiacos are among the top powers in European basketball, having won the Euroleague six times and three respectively, whilst AEK Athens was the first Greek team to win a European trophy in any team sport. Athens began as a small, Mycenaen community and grew to become a city that, at its height, epitomized the best of Greek virtues and enjoyed such prestige that the Spartans refused to sack the city or enslave the citizens, even after Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian War. The Acropolis of Athens and its monuments are universal symbols of the classical spirit and civilization and form the greatest architectural and artistic complex bequeathed by Greek Antiquity to the world. The rapid expansion of the modern city, which continues to this day, was initiated in the 1950s and 1960s, because of Greece's transition from an agricultural to an industrial nation. Greek composers begin to write music using the tunes of the tango, waltz, swing, foxtrot, some times combined with melodies in the style of Athenian serenades' repertory.  Concerts and theatrical shows, such as those by the troupe Cirque du Soleil, have recently been held in the complex. Lycabettus, Philopappos hill and the area around it, including Pnyx and Ardettos hill, are planted with pines and other trees, with the character of a small forest rather than typical metropolitan parkland. By the mid-4th century BC, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian affairs. The Athens Urban Area is considered to form the city of Athens as a whole, despite its administrative divisions, which is the largest in Greece and one of the most populated urban areas in Europe. While its main purpose is transport, it also houses Greek artifacts found during construction of the system.  Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 5,000 years. For the greatest part of the 19th century Neoclassicism dominated Athens, as well as some deviations from it such as Eclecticism, especially in the early 20th century. 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